The five countries in Central Asia, namely Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan, are landlocked and therefore rely critically on aviation for passenger travel and express cargo logistics. However, despite substantial growth in the past decade, the aviation market in the region is still not realizing its full potential. This chapter reviews the development status of the international air travel market from Central Asia, with an aim of identifying the key barriers for industrial development and growth, and possible remedies to address these challenges. Overall, our study suggests that international market growth from the region is significantly influenced by historical patterns and political ties with Russia. Whereas markets linking selected countries such as Turkey and the UAE have experienced substantial growth, further liberalization is needed for the region to achieve better connectivity with major trade partners and aviation markets.