Map-Assisted 3D Indoor Localization Using Crowd-Sensing-Based Trajectory Data and Error Ellipse-Enhanced Fusion

Qiao Wan, Yue Yu, Ruizhi Chen, Liang Chen

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Crowd-sensing-based localization is regarded as an effective method for providing indoor location-based services in large-scale urban areas. The performance of the crowd-sensing approach is subject to the poor accuracy of collected daily-life trajectories and the efficient combination of different location sources and indoor maps. This paper proposes a robust map-assisted 3D Indoor localization framework using crowd-sensing-based trajectory data and error ellipse-enhanced fusion (ML-CTEF). In the off-line phase, novel inertial odometry which contains the combination of 1D-convolutional neural networks (1D-CNN) and Bi-directional Long Short-Term Memory (Bi-LSTM)-based walking speed estimator is proposed for accurate crowd-sensing trajectories data pre-processing under different handheld modes. The Bi-LSTM network is further applied for floor identification, and the indoor network matching algorithm is adopted for the generation of fingerprinting database without pain. In the online phase, an error ellipse-assisted particle filter is proposed for the intelligent integration of inertial odometry, crowdsourced Wi-Fi fingerprinting, and indoor map information. The experimental results prove that the proposed ML-CTEF realizes autonomous and precise 3D indoor localization performance under complex and large-scale indoor environments; the estimated average positioning error is within 1.01 m in a multi-floor contained indoor building.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4636
JournalRemote Sensing
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


  • crowd-sensing
  • error ellipse
  • fingerprinting database
  • floor identification
  • walking speed estimator

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences


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