Magnetoelectric transverse gradient sensor with high detection sensitivity and low gradient noise

Mingji Zhang, Siu Wing Or

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. We report, theoretically and experimentally, the realization of a high detection performance in a novel magnetoelectric (ME) transverse gradient sensor based on the large ME effect and the magnetic field gradient (MFG) technique in a pair of magnetically-biased, electrically-shielded, and mechanically-enclosed ME composites having a transverse orientation and an axial separation. The output voltage of the gradient sensor is directly obtained from the transverse MFG-induced difference in ME voltage between the two ME composites and is calibrated against transverse MFGs to give a high detection sensitivity of 0.4–30.6 V/(T/m), a strong common-mode magnetic field noise rejection rate of <‒14.5 dB, a small input-output nonlinearity of <10 ppm, and a low gradient noise of 0.16–620 nT/m/√Hz in a broad frequency range of 1 Hz–170 kHz under a small baseline of 35 mm. An analysis of experimental gradient noise spectra obtained in a magnetically-unshielded laboratory environment reveals the domination of the pink (1/f) noise, dielectric loss noise, and power-frequency noise below 3 kHz, in addition to the circuit noise above 3 kHz, in the gradient sensor. The high detection performance, together with the added merit of passive and direct ME conversion by the large ME effect in the ME composites, makes the gradient sensor suitable for the passive, direct, and broadband detection of transverse MFGs.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2446
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2017


  • Ambient noise suppression
  • Baseline
  • Magnetic field gradient
  • Magnetoelectric effect
  • Transverse gradient sensor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biochemistry
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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