Machine learning based LOS/NLOS classifier and robust estimator for GNSS shadow matching

Haosheng Xu, Antonio Angrisano, Salvatore Gaglione, Li Ta Hsu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

41 Citations (Scopus)


Global Navigation Satellites Systems (GNSS) is frequently used for positioning services in various applications, e.g., pedestrian and vehicular navigation. However, it is well-known that GNSS positioning performs unreliably in urban environments. GNSS shadow matching is a method of improving accuracy in the cross-street direction. Initial position and classification of observed satellite visibility between line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) are essential for its performance. For the conventional LOS/NLOS classification, the classifiers are based on a single feature, extracted from raw GNSS measurements, such as signal noise ratio, pseudorange, elevation angle, etc. Especially in urban canyons, these measurements are unstable and unreliable due to the signal reflection and refraction from the surrounding buildings. Besides, the conventional least square approach for positioning is insufficient to provide accurate initialization for shadow matching in urban areas. In our study, shadow matching is improved using the initial position from robust estimator and the satellite visibility determined by support vector machine (SVM). The robust estimator has an improved positioning accuracy and the classification rate of SVM classification can reach 91.5% in urban scenarios. An important issue is related to satellites with ultra-high or low elevation angles and satellites near the building boundary that are very likely to be misclassified. By solving this problem, the SVM classification shows the potential of about 90% classification accuracy for various urban cases. With the help of these approaches, the shadow matching has a mean error of 10.27 m with 1.44 m in the cross-street direction; these performances are suitable for urban positioning.

Original languageEnglish
Article number15
JournalSatellite Navigation
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 11 May 2020


  • GNSS
  • NLOS and machine learning
  • Robust estimation
  • Shadow matching

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Signal Processing


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