Lower English proficiency means poorer feedback performance? A mixed-methods study

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29 Citations (Scopus)


This study adopts a mixed-methods design and examines the relation between English proficiency and peer feedback performance. Data sources included peer feedback made by 23 lower English proficiency (LEP) students and 23 higher English proficiency (HEP) students, and semi-structured interviews with four LEP and four HEP students from that sample. Quantitative analysis did not find significant difference between the two groups in feedback amount or feedback quality, but significant difference was found in feedback type. LEP students tended to make more clarification requests in content feedback, more suggestions and fewer direct corrections in language feedback. Qualitative analysis of students’ interviews showed that individual factors (i.e. genre knowledge, L1, L2, reference materials, and imagined identities) and contextual factors (i.e. anonymity, feedback separation, and time availability) shaped their feedback processes. Based on these findings, a conceptual framework is suggested to explain how feedback performance is enabled or constrained by cognitive, affective, sociocultural, and instructional factors. The framework can be a useful heuristic for EFL teachers to create facilitative conditions to engage and empower LEP students in feedback activities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14-24
Number of pages11
JournalAssessing Writing
Early online date6 Jun 2019
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2019


  • English proficiency
  • Feedback performance
  • Mixed-methods design
  • Peer feedback

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Education
  • Linguistics and Language


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