Low-cost carbonyl polymer design for high-performance lithium-organic battery cathodes

Caiting Li, Xi Liu, Zhiling He, Wang Tao, Yuyuan Zhang, Yangfan Zhang, Yongtang Jia, Hui Yu, Qingguang Zeng, Da Wang, John H. Xin, Chunhui Duan, Fei Huang

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Carbonyl polymers, such as poly(anthraquinonyl sulfide) (PAQS) and poly(benzoquinonyl sulfide) (PBQS), are typically selected as cathode materials for lithium-organic batteries (LOBs) because of their inherent high theoretical capacity and low solubility in the electrolyte. However, their commercialization is hindered by their relatively complex synthesis routes, low yields, and high cost. Herein, a carbonyl polymer poly(piperazine-alt-benzoquinone) (NP2), obtained from the polymerization of vanillin and piperazine with oxidative amination at the theoretical production cost of US $0.48 per gram, exhibits a high reversible capacity of 257 mAh g−1, leading to a cost performance of US $0.19 per 100 mAh, which is superior to the reported carbonyl polymers. Furthermore, ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ex situ and in situ Fourier-transform infrared measurements release the reversible electrochemical reaction mechanism of NP2 based on carbonyl redox chemistry. This study demonstrates a simple and effective strategy to synthesize low-cost carbonyl polymers, which will pave the way for their future application in high-performance LOBs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number230464
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2021


  • Carbonyl polymer
  • Cathode
  • Lithium-organic battery
  • Low-cost
  • Vanillin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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