Aim: To evaluate the long-term cost-effectiveness of a Patient Empowerment Programme (PEP) for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in primary care. Materials and Methods: PEP participants were subjects with type 2 DM who enrolled into PEP in addition to enrolment in the Risk Assessment and Management Programme for DM (RAMP-DM) at primary care level. The comparison group was subjects who only enrolled into RAMP-DM without participating in PEP (non-PEP). A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted using a patient-level simulation model (with fixed-time increments) from a societal perspective. We incorporated the empirical data from a matched cohort of PEP and non-PEP groups to simulate lifetime costs and outcomes for subjects with DM with or without PEP. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) in terms of cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained were calculated. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted with results presented as a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. Results: With an assumption that the PEP effect would last for 5 years as shown by the empirical data, the incremental cost per subject was US $197 and the incremental QALYs gained were 0.06 per subject, which resulted in an ICER of US $3290 per QALY gained compared with no PEP across the lifetime. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed 66% likelihood that PEP is cost-effective compared with non-PEP when willingness-to-pay for a QALY is ≥US $46 153 (based on per capita GDP 2017). Conclusions: Based on this carefully measured cost of PEP and its potentially large benefits, PEP could be highly cost-effective from a societal perspective as an adjunct intervention for patients with DM.
- primary care
- type 2 diabetes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism