LNG bunkering infrastructure planning at port

Yu Guo, Ran Yan, Jingwen Qi, Yannick Liu, S. Wang, Lu Zhen

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


Ships are traditionally powered by fossil fuels such as heavy fuel oil (HFO) and marine diesel oil (MDO), where the emissions, such as particulates, hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon dioxide (CO2), negatively affect the environment and human health. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) encourages shipping companies to use liquefied natural gas (LNG), which is a green fuel source to power shipping activities and is easy to store, to replace traditional marine fuels. There are three common methods of LNG bunkering: ship-to-ship, truck-to-ship, and port-to-ship. The objective of this study is to determine the optimal bunkering method at a port using an integer linear programming (ILP) model considering three kinds of costs: fixed, variable, and extra. To find the optimal bunkering method, the three methods and their related constraints are modeled into the ILP model. The results indicate that ship-to-ship is the optimal bunkering method for LNG under the scenario of the port considered. Numerical experiments are conducted to validate model performance and generate managerial insights.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100134
JournalMultimodal Transportation
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024


  • Clean energy
  • Integer linear programming (ILP)
  • Liquid natural gas (LNG) bunkering
  • Maritime transportation
  • Vessel fuel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Transportation


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