Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of bronchiolitis in young children. Microbial agents such as endotoxin and RSV are implicated in airway inflammation during the development of reactive airway disease (RAD) later in childhood. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in an inflammation cascade through pathogen-associated molecular pattern recognition including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and viral components. In this study, we investigated the expression of TLRs and cytokine-chemokine production profiles of RSV-infected epithelial cells. In live-RSV infected human tracheal epithelial cell line (9HTEo), TLRs 1-10 mRNA levels were up-regulated in a time-dependent manner compared with ultraviolet (UV)-inactivated RSV. RSV was shown to alter TLR4 membrane and cytosolic location in epithelial cells. Stimulating RSV-infected epithelial cells with TLR4 agonist LPS increased synthesis of IL-6, IL-8, and reduced regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) production. TLR4 neutralizing antibody HTA 125 and TLR4-targeting RNA interference experiments revealed that TLR4 signaling pathway played a predominant role in mediating LPS-induced-IL-6 production of RSV infected epithelial cells. Altogether, our studies indicated that TLR4 play a critical role in leading LPS mediated-IL-6 response in RSV infected-epithelial cells and might be an important factor influencing the cytokine-chemokine profile of epithelial cells interacting with virus and endotoxin, which is correlated with phenotypes of RSV diseases.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health