Light-Driven Self-Oscillating Actuators with Phototactic Locomotion Based on Black Phosphorus Heterostructure

Ying Hu, Qixiao Ji, Majing Huang, Longfei Chang, Chengchu Zhang, Guan Wu, Bin Zi, Ningzhong Bao, Wei Chen, Yucheng Wu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Developing self-oscillating soft actuators that enable autonomous, continuous, and directional locomotion is significant in biomimetic soft robotics fields, but remains great challenging. Here, an untethered soft photoactuators based on covalently-bridged black phosphorus-carbon nanotubes heterostructure with self-oscillation and phototactic locomotion under constant light irradiation is designed. Owing to the good photothermal effect of black phosphorus heterostructure and thermal deformation of the actuator components, the new actuator assembled by heterostructured black phosphorus, polymer and paper produces light-driven reversible deformation with fast and large response. By using this actuator as mechanical power and designing a robot configuration with self-feedback loop to generate self-oscillation, an inchworm-like actuator that can crawl autonomously towards the light source is constructed. Moreover, due to the anisotropy and tailorability of the actuator, an artificial crab robot that can simulate the sideways locomotion of crabs and simultaneously change color under light irradiation is also realized.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)20511-20517
Number of pages7
JournalAngewandte Chemie - International Edition
Issue number37
Publication statusPublished - 6 Sep 2021


  • biomimetic motion
  • light-driven actuation
  • phototactic self-locomotion
  • soft actuator
  • soft robot

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Chemistry(all)

Cite this