Light-Driven Self-Oscillating Actuators with Phototactic Locomotion Based on Black Phosphorus Heterostructure

Ying Hu, Qixiao Ji, Majing Huang, Longfei Chang, Chengchu Zhang, Guan Wu, Bin Zi, Ningzhong Bao, Wei Chen, Yucheng Wu

    Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

    77 Citations (Scopus)


    Developing self-oscillating soft actuators that enable autonomous, continuous, and directional locomotion is significant in biomimetic soft robotics fields, but remains great challenging. Here, an untethered soft photoactuators based on covalently-bridged black phosphorus-carbon nanotubes heterostructure with self-oscillation and phototactic locomotion under constant light irradiation is designed. Owing to the good photothermal effect of black phosphorus heterostructure and thermal deformation of the actuator components, the new actuator assembled by heterostructured black phosphorus, polymer and paper produces light-driven reversible deformation with fast and large response. By using this actuator as mechanical power and designing a robot configuration with self-feedback loop to generate self-oscillation, an inchworm-like actuator that can crawl autonomously towards the light source is constructed. Moreover, due to the anisotropy and tailorability of the actuator, an artificial crab robot that can simulate the sideways locomotion of crabs and simultaneously change color under light irradiation is also realized.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)20511-20517
    Number of pages7
    JournalAngewandte Chemie - International Edition
    Issue number37
    Publication statusPublished - 6 Sept 2021


    • biomimetic motion
    • light-driven actuation
    • phototactic self-locomotion
    • soft actuator
    • soft robot

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Catalysis
    • General Chemistry


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