Life cycle thinking tools: life cycle assessment, life cycle costing and social life cycle assessment

Sara Toniolo, Roberta Chiara Tosato, Fabio Gambaro, Jingzheng Ren

Research output: Chapter in book / Conference proceedingChapter in an edited book (as author)Academic researchpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


This chapter introduces life cycle thinking tools, namely life cycle assessment (LCA), life cycle costing (LCC), and social life cycle assessment (S-LCA). All the three tools are presented through the practical phases to perform them. LCA methodology is described along with the four phases envisaged by the standards ISO 14040:2006 and ISO 14044:2006. LCC technique, which is not structured by a specific international standard, is presented according to a methodology proposed by some authors and which comprises 10 steps. S-LCA is described presenting the four phases suggested by the UNEP/SETAC guidelines, published in 2009. Similarities and differences among these three life cycle thinking tools are highlighted and discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationLife Cycle Sustainability Assessment for Decision-Making
Subtitle of host publicationMethodologies and Case Studies
Number of pages18
ISBN (Electronic)9780128183557
ISBN (Print)9780128183557
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Life cycle assessment (LCA)
  • Life cycle costing (LCC)
  • Life cycle instruments
  • Social life cycle assessment (S-LCA)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)

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