This chapter introduces life cycle thinking tools, namely life cycle assessment (LCA), life cycle costing (LCC), and social life cycle assessment (S-LCA). All the three tools are presented through the practical phases to perform them. LCA methodology is described along with the four phases envisaged by the standards ISO 14040:2006 and ISO 14044:2006. LCC technique, which is not structured by a specific international standard, is presented according to a methodology proposed by some authors and which comprises 10 steps. S-LCA is described presenting the four phases suggested by the UNEP/SETAC guidelines, published in 2009. Similarities and differences among these three life cycle thinking tools are highlighted and discussed.
|Title of host publication||Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment for Decision-Making|
|Subtitle of host publication||Methodologies and Case Studies|
|Number of pages||18|
|Publication status||Published - 2020|