Leadership and intra-personal development: Relevance to Chinese nursing students

Chung Yee Zenobia Chan

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


It is well known that intra-personal attributes and leadership styles are crucial elements of nursing education and practice. However, little has been done in these aspects, particularly in terms of students' perspectives regarding various cultural influences on intra-personal development and nursing leadership. Six focus group interviews were conducted in Hong Kong to explore the meanings of intra-personal development and nursing leadership in nursing education and the clinical setting, and to analyze Chinese culture relevant to intra-personal and leadership development. The results revealed three themes (intra-personal development, nursing leadership, and cultural influence) extracted from the focus group interviews. Regarding intra-personal development, the findings from participants' experiences suggested that they agreed with the importance of self-awareness, self-reflection, emotional competence, resilience, morality, and self-identity in nursing students. In addition, social competence, communication, team building and self-leadership, as well as crisis, conflict, and stress management, are crucial to nursing leadership. Some participants were also concerned with the cultural influence on gender barriers and hierarchism in the clinical setting. As intra-personal characteristics, leadership competence, and cultural values are crucial and fundamental in education, nursing programs should enhance these aspects for the holistic development of nursing students. Further studies across regions and time, interviews with nursing educators, and cross-cultural collaboration for nursing leadership and intra-personal development in nursing programs are recommended.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)423-433
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal on Disability and Human Development
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2014


  • Chinese
  • intra-personal development
  • leadership
  • nursing education

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation
  • Sensory Systems
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Advanced and Specialised Nursing
  • Speech and Hearing


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