Large eddy simulation of vertical jet impingement with a free surface

Yong Ping Chen, Chi Wai Li, Chang Kuang Zhang

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


The flow characteristics of a 2D slot jet vertically impinging on free surfaces are numerically investigated by the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with a dynamic Sub-Grid Scale (SGS) model. The s-coordinate transformation is introduced to map the depth-variable physical domain to a depth-uniform computational domain. The split-operator scheme, which splits the solution procedure into advection, diffusion and pressure propagation steps, is employed to solve the instantaneous velocity and pressure field. A fully nonlinear Lagrange-Euler method is used to compute the free surface elevation. The numerical results show that the jet retains good self-similarity in the Zone of Established Flow (ZEF), while the turbulence of jet shifts gradually from isotropic to anisotropic in the Zone of Surface Impingement (ZSI). When the jet approaches the free surface, the centerline velocity decreases rapidly and the flow is deflected by the free surface. Two symmetrical surface jets are formed in the Zone of Horizontal Jets (ZHJ). An approximate Gaussian distribution of super-elevation is also formed on the free surface. The computed results are in good agreement with the available experimental data.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)148-155
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Hydrodynamics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2006


  • 2D slot jet
  • Free surface
  • Large eddy simulation (LES)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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