Kinetic gait analysis using a low-cost insole

Adam M. Howell, Toshiki Kobayashi, Heather A. Hayes, K. Bo Foreman, Stacy J.Morris Bamberg

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

160 Citations (Scopus)


Abnormal gait caused by stroke or other pathological reasons can greatly impact the life of an individual. Being able to measure and analyze that gait is often critical for rehabilitation. Motion analysis labs and many current methods of gait analysis are expensive and inaccessible to most individuals. The low-cost, wearable, and wireless insole-based gait analysis system in this study provides kinetic measurements of gait by using low-cost force sensitive resistors. This paper describes the design and fabrication of the insole and its evaluation in six control subjects and four hemiplegic stroke subjects. Subject-specific linear regression models were used to determine ground reaction force plus moments corresponding to ankle dorsiflexion/plantarflexion, knee flexion/extension, and knee abduction/adduction. Comparison with data simultaneously collected from a clinical motion analysis laboratory demonstrated that the insole results for ground reaction force and ankle moment were highly correlated (all >0.95) for all subjects, while the two knee moments were less strongly correlated (generally >0.80). This provides a means of cost-effective and efficient healthcare delivery of mobile gait analysis that can be used anywhere from large clinics to an individual's home.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6473842
Pages (from-to)3284-3290
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Ankle moment
  • force sensitive resistor
  • gait analysis
  • ground reaction force (GRF)
  • insole
  • knee moment
  • orthosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering


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