National geographical state is on spatial-related national state regarding social nature, politics, economy and culture of a nation. The reliability of national geographical state is a crucial issue which will affect the correctness of a national strategic decision and planning. Reliable monitoring of national geographical state is thus a new research direction scientifically and with an urgent demand by the country. In this paper, the research on reliable dynamic monitoring of national geographical state is proposed, including basic concepts, general research framework, key technologies and theories, and core problems to be solved. The proposed key technologies and theories for reliable geographical state monitoring include reliable analysis and quality control of dynamic monitoring, spatial-temporal dynamic modeling, integrated space-air-ground monitoring system, geographical grid-based representation of non-spatial data, change detection, dynamic update and consistency maintenance of spatial-temporal data, reliable analysis, reliable data mining, reliable decision-making, cloud computing framework, geo-visualization and techniques of GNSS and handheld devices for monitoring data capture.