Key Implementation Factors in Pro-poor Tourism

Denis Tolkach, Michael Pearlman, Brian Edward Melville King

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Tourism has become an important economic activity in many developing and least developed countries. However, projects which have an explicit focus on the alleviation of poverty through tourism (commonly referred to as Pro-poor Tourism (PPT)) are relatively recent. Given the brief history of PPT, research which explains the processes associated with PPT projects is required. This study considers PPT from a project management perspective and identifies the key factors involved in implementing PPT through an analysis of tourism development generally and the PPT literature in particular and tests their relevance and importance using mixed methods research. The factors have been categorized into three groups, based on an analysis of the relevant responses: external factors, higher order internal factors, and lower order internal factors. Several areas were identified as being important for the successful implementation and development of PPT: communication between stakeholders, a market approach, financial support, political, socio-economic and cultural environment and organizational structure. Considering these factors during the early stages of planning will assist with effective project implementation. Several areas were identified for further research: development of a model of successful PPT projects, connecting PPT projects to markets, and the monitoring and evaluation of PPT projects.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3-13
Number of pages11
JournalTourism Recreation Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • implementation
  • poverty alleviation
  • Pro-Poor Tourism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
  • Cultural Studies
  • Geography, Planning and Development


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