Joint Algorithm of Message Fragmentation and No-Wait Scheduling for Time-Sensitive Networks

Xi Jin, Changqing Xia, Nan Guan, Peng Zeng

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


Time-sensitive networks (TSNs) support not only traditional best-effort communications but also deterministic communications, which send each packet at a deterministic time so that the data transmissions of networked control systems can be precisely scheduled to guarantee hard real-time constraints. No-wait scheduling is suitable for such TSNs and generates the schedules of deterministic communications with the minimal network resources so that all of the remaining resources can be used to improve the throughput of best-effort communications. However, due to inappropriate message fragmentation, the realtime performance of no-wait scheduling algorithms is reduced. Therefore, in this paper, joint algorithms of message fragmentation and no-wait scheduling are proposed. First, a specification for the joint problem based on optimization modulo theories is proposed so that off-the-shelf solvers can be used to find optimal solutions. Second, to improve the scalability of our algorithm, the worst-case delay of messages is analyzed, and then, based on the analysis, a heuristic algorithm is proposed to construct low-delay schedules. Finally, we conduct extensive test cases to evaluate our proposed algorithms. The evaluation results indicate that, compared to existing algorithms, the proposed joint algorithm improves schedulability by up to 50%.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9317715
Pages (from-to)478-490
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE/CAA Journal of Automatica Sinica
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2021


  • Message fragmentation
  • networked control system
  • real-time scheduling
  • time sensitive network

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Information Systems
  • Artificial Intelligence


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