Is subjective outcome evaluation related to objective outcome evaluation? Insights from a longitudinal study in Hong Kong

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24 Citations (Scopus)


Study Objectives: Empirical studies investigating the inter-relationships among subjective outcomes and objective outcomes are sparse in the scientific literature. This study examined the relationship between these 2 forms of outcome evaluation data in Chinese adolescents, utilizing longitudinal data. Design: In Wave 3 and Wave 4 of a randomized group trial, 2,784 Chinese secondary school students responded to the Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale (CPYDS) assessing objective outcome at pretest (Wave 3) and posttest (Wave 4). Students in the experimental schools also responded to a measure of client satisfaction assessing the subjective outcome of a positive youth development program at posttest (Wave 4). Results: Subjective outcome evaluation measures (eg, process, program, and effectiveness) at Wave 3 were significantly correlated with CPYDS scores at Wave 4 and difference scores. Subjective outcome evaluation measures also predicted changes in the objective outcome evaluation measures scores across time. Conclusions: The present findings replicated the previous findings that subjective outcome and objective outcome evaluation findings were intimately related, and subjective outcome measures predicted posttest measures and their changes over time. The present study suggests that subjective outcome evaluation findings may yield useful information regarding program effectiveness in youth work settings.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Issue numberS
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2014


  • Chinese adolescents
  • Client satisfaction approach
  • Objective outcome evaluation
  • Project P.A.T.H.S
  • Subjective outcome evaluation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Medicine(all)

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