Investigation of concrete encased steel composite columns at elevated temperatures

E. Ellobody, Ben Young

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a nonlinear 3-D finite element model investigating the behaviour of concrete encased steel composite columns at elevated temperatures. The composite columns were pin-ended axially loaded columns having different cross-sectional dimensions, different structural steel sections, different coarse aggregates and different load ratios during fire. The nonlinear material properties of steel, concrete, longitudinal and transverse reinforcement bars as well as the effect of concrete confinement at ambient and elevated temperatures were considered in the finite element models. The interface between the steel section and concrete, the longitudinal and transverse reinforcement bars, and the reinforcement bars and concrete were also considered allowing the bond behaviour to be modelled and the different components to retain its profile during the deformation of the column. The initial overall (out-of-straightness) geometric imperfection was carefully included in the model. The finite element model has been validated against published tests conducted at elevated temperatures. The timetemperature relationships, deformed shapes at failure, timeaxial displacement relationships, failure modes and fire resistances of the columns were evaluated by the finite element model. It has been shown that the finite element model can accurately predict the behaviour of the columns at elevated temperatures. Furthermore, the variables that influence the fire resistance and behaviour of the composite columns comprising different load ratios during fire, different coarse aggregates and different slenderness ratios were investigated in parametric studies. It is shown that the fire resistance of the columns generally increases with the decrease in the column slenderness ratio as well as the increase in the structural steel ratio. It is also shown that the timeaxial displacement relationship is considerably affected by the coarse aggregate. The fire resistances of the composite columns obtained from the finite element analyses were compared with the design values obtained from the Eurocode 4 for composite columns at elevated temperatures. It is shown that the EC4 is conservative for all the concrete encased steel composite columns, except for the columns having a load ratio of 0.5 as well as the columns having a slenderness ratio of 0.69 and a load ratio of 0.4. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights resvered.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)597-608
Number of pages12
JournalThin-Walled Structures
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Composite columns
  • Concrete encased steel
  • Elevated temperatures
  • Finite element
  • Fire resistance
  • Modelling
  • Structural fire design

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Mechanical Engineering


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