This chapter introduces current trends in the acquisition and identification of fingerprint images. This introductory chapter discusses the types of fingerprint impressions and the sensing techniques employed in fingerprint sensors. Different types of contactless 2D fingerprint sensing techniques are discussed, including the comparison with contactless 3D fingerprint systems. This chapter bridges the journey from rolled and inked fingerprint impressions to the more advanced smartphone-based fingerprint sensors, in terms of their resolution and sensing area. It also provides details on publicly accessible implementations on fingerprint matchers and a list of public fingerprint databases along with respective weblinks to enable easy accessibility.