Intraindividual variability and stability in rumination: examining the effect of rumination on negative affect across domains

Xiaolin Shi, Xiaoting Huang, Zimeng Guo, Susan Elizabeth Gordon

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of employees’ trait rumination on the variability of their state rumination and the continuing influence on their negative affect at home. Design/methodology/approach: A time-lagged experience sampling method was used for the data collection from full-time employees in the hotel industry. The hypotheses were tested with multilevel modeling using a random coefficient modeling approach. Findings: Hotel employees who are high in trait rumination generally show high levels of state rumination and greater within-person variability in state rumination over time. Additionally, the negative effects of workplace state rumination can last until employees come home and the next day before going to work. Furthermore, employees who are high in trait rumination are more likely to be influenced by state rumination, as they experience more negative affect after arriving home. Practical implications: Rumination has been shown to decrease hotel employee overall well-being. The findings of this study provide suggestions for remedial measures that can be taken by hotel organizations to help employees address ruminative thinking. Originality/value: Drawing on response styles and work/family border theories, this study contributes to the rumination literature by considering both trait rumination and state rumination in a broader context. For a comprehensive understanding of the dynamic temporal characteristics of state rumination, this study considers the net intraindividual variability of state rumination as the outcome of trait rumination.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management
Early online date9 Feb 2024
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024


  • Intraindividual variability
  • Negative affect
  • State rumination
  • Trait rumination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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