Intervertebral Disk Degeneration: The Microenvironment and Tissue Engineering Strategies

Yiming Dou, Xun Sun, Xinlong Ma, Xin Zhao, Qiang Yang

Research output: Journal article publicationReview articleAcademic researchpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Intervertebral disk degeneration (IVDD) is a leading cause of disability. The degeneration is inevitable, and the mechanisms are complex. Current therapeutic strategies mainly focus on the relief of symptoms, not the intrinsic regeneration of the intervertebral disk (IVD). Tissue engineering is a promising strategy for IVDD due to its ability to restore a healthy microenvironment and promote IVD regeneration. This review briefly summarizes the IVD anatomy and composition and then sets out elements of the microenvironment and the interactions. We rationalized different scaffolds based on tissue engineering strategies used recently. To fulfill the complete restoration of a healthy IVD microenvironment, we propose that various tissue engineering strategies should be combined and customized to create personalized therapeutic strategies for each individual.

Original languageEnglish
Article number592118
JournalFrontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jul 2021


  • disk herniation
  • intervertebral disk degeneration
  • low back pain
  • microenvironment
  • regeneration
  • scaffold
  • tissue engineering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Histology
  • Biomedical Engineering


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