Intelligent Fusion Structure for Wi-Fi/BLE/QR/MEMS Sensor-Based Indoor Localization

Yue Yu, Yi Zhang, Liang Chen, Ruizhi Chen

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Due to the complexity of urban environments, localizing pedestrians indoors using mobile terminals is an urgent task in many emerging areas. Multi-source fusion-based localization is considered to be an effective way to provide location-based services in large-scale indoor areas. This paper presents an intelligent 3D indoor localization framework that uses the integration of Wi-Fi, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), quick response (QR) code, and micro-electro-mechanical system sensors (the 3D-WBQM framework). An enhanced inertial odometry was developed for accurate pedestrian localization and trajectory optimization in indoor spaces containing magnetic interference and external acceleration, and Wi-Fi fine time Measurement stations, BLE nodes, and QR codes were applied for landmark detection to provide an absolute reference for trajectory optimization and crowdsourced navigation database construction. In addition, the robust unscented Kalman filter (RUKF) was applied as a generic integrated model to combine the estimated location results from inertial odometry, BLE, QR, Wi-Fi FTM, and the crowdsourced Wi-Fi fingerprinting for large-scale indoor positioning. The experimental results indicated that the proposed 3D-WBQM framework was verified to realize autonomous and accurate positioning performance in large-scale indoor areas using different location sources, and meter-level positioning accuracy can be acquired in Wi-Fi FTM supported areas.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1202
JournalRemote Sensing
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023


  • indoor localization
  • inertial odometry
  • MEMS sensors
  • robust unscented Kalman filter
  • Wi-Fi fine time measurement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences


Dive into the research topics of 'Intelligent Fusion Structure for Wi-Fi/BLE/QR/MEMS Sensor-Based Indoor Localization'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this