Innovative Timoshenko soil-pile integrated element for lager diameter laterally-loaded piles considering soil-pile interactions

Xue You Li, Hai Peng Zhao, Si Wei Liu, Jian Hong Wan, Rui Bai

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


The large diameter piles (LDP) are designed to provide strong bearing capacity, which should be carefully analysed to ensure the superstructures’ reliability. The conventional discrete spring element (DSE) method with the Euler-Bernoulli beam element is inappropriate for LDPs as the pile's shear deformations may be considerable. Besides, the nonlinear soil-pile interactions (SPI) cannot be conveniently simulated with the DSE method. To accurately and effectively evaluate the lateral performance of LDP under extreme load, this paper develops an innovative soil-pile integrated element based on the Timoshenko beam theory. The Green-Lagrange strain is used to formulate the potential energy function with the SPI considered. The Gauss integration method is adopted to simplify the element formulation and evaluate the SPI within the element end nodes. The secant and tangent matrixes are derived for calculating the element deformations and internal forces. The transformation matrix describing the nodal parameters’ relation between element local and global coordinate is presented for practical numerical analysis. The soil-pile integrated element avoids using discrete soil spring elements, significantly reducing the modelling and computing efforts. The verification examples demonstrate that the proposed soil-pile integrated element has high accuracy and efficiency in geometrically nonlinear analysis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105020
JournalComputers and Geotechnics
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Geometrically nonlinear analysis
  • Large diameter piles
  • Soil-pile integrated element
  • Soil-pile interaction
  • Timoshenko beam theory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Computer Science Applications


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