Initial dilution of a vertical round non-buoyant jet in wavy cross-flow environment

Ya na Wang, Yong ping Chen, Zhen shan Xu, Yi Pan, Chang kuan Zhang, Chi Wai Li

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


The phenomenon of wastewater discharged into coastal waters can be simplified as a turbulent jet under the effect of waves and currents. Previous studies have been carried out to investigate the jet behaviors under the current only or the wave only environment. To obtain better understanding of the jet behaviors in a realistic situation, a series of physical experiments on the initial dilution of a vertical round jet in the wavy cross-flow environment are conducted. The diluted processes of the jet are recorded by a high-resolution camcorder and the concentration fields of the jet are measured with a peristaltic suction pumping system. When the jet is discharged into the wavy cross-flow environment, a distinctive phenomenon, namely “effluent clouds”, is observed. According to the quantitative measurements, the jet width in the wavy cross-flow environment increases more significantly than that does in the cross-flow only environment, indicating that the waves impose a positive effect on the enhancement of jet initial dilution. In order to generalize the experimental findings, a comprehensive velocity scale uaand a characteristic length scale l are introduced. Through dimensional analysis, it is found that the dimensionless centerline concentration trajectories yc/l is in proportion to 1/3 power of the dimensionless downstream distance x/l, and the dimensionless centerline dilution ScQ/(ual2) is proportional to the square of the dimensionless centerline trajectory yc/l. Several empirical equations are then derived by using the Froude number of cross-flow Frcas a reference coefficient. This paper provides a better understanding and new estimations of the jet initial dilution under the combined effect of waves and cross-flow current.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)847-858
Number of pages12
JournalChina Ocean Engineering
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2015


  • dimensional analysis
  • experimental study
  • initial dilution
  • turbulent jet
  • wavy cross-flow environment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Ocean Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering


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