Influences of chemical activators on incinerator bottom ash

X. C. Qiao, C. R. Cheeseman, Chi Sun Poon

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


This research has applied different chemical activators to mechanically and thermally treated fine fraction (<14 mm) of incinerator bottom ash (IBA), in order to investigate the influences of chemical activators on this new pozzolanic material. IBA has been milled and thermally treated at 800 °C (TIBA). The TIBA produced was blended with Ca(OH)2and evaluated for setting time, reactivity and compressive strength after the addition of 0.0565 mole of Na2SO4, K2SO4, Na2CO3, K2CO3, NaOH, KOH and CaCl2into 100 g of binder (TIBA+Ca(OH)2). The microstructures of activated IBA and hydrated samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetry (TG) analysis. Thermal treatment is found to produce gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7), wollastonite (CaSiO3) and mayenite (Ca12Al14O33) phases. The thermally treated IBA samples are significantly more reactive than the milled IBA. The addition of Na2CO3can increase the compressive strength and calcium hydroxide consumption at 28-day curing ages. However, the addition of Na2SO4, K2SO4, K2CO3, NaOH and KOH reduces the strength and hydration reaction. Moreover, these chemicals produce more porous samples due to increased generation of hydrogen gas. The addition of CaCl2has a negative effect on the hydration of TIBA samples. Calcium aluminium oxide carbonate sulphide hydrate (Ca4Al2O6(CO3)0.67(SO3)0.33(H2O)11) is the main hydration product in the samples with activated IBA, except for the sample containing CaCl2.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)544-549
Number of pages6
JournalWaste Management
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Waste Management and Disposal


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