Influence of spike current in different shaped waveforms on the hardness and grain size of nickel electroforms

K. P. Wong, Kang Cheung Chan, Tai Man Yue

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


This paper studies experimentally and theoretically the effects of a ramp-down spike-shaped waveform on the grain size and the hardness of nickel electroforms in pulse current electroforming. Experimental results show that the quality of the electroforms, in terms of hardness improvement, influenced by the types of waveform is in the order of: ramp-down and triangular, both with spike > rectangular with spike > ramp-down; and triangular, both with relaxation time > rectangular. Compared with the results for the conventional rectangular waveform, the experimental results show that the hardness value can be improved by about 46% when a ramp-down spike and a relaxation time are used in the case of triangular or ramp-down waveform. The finest grain size and the highest hardness value were obtained by using a ramp-down spike in either triangular or ramp-down waveform. These results are supported by theoretical predictions and study of the surface morphology of the electroforms using a scanning electron microscope.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)97-104
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Materials Processing Technology
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 2 Nov 2001


  • Grain sizes
  • Hardness
  • Pulse current electroforming
  • Shaped waveform
  • Spike

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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