Influence of photolithography on the cross-sectional shape of polysiloxane as an optical waveguide material on printed circuit boards

Kam Chuen Yung, Chung Pang Lee, Ching Hong Wong, Siu Lim Tam, Siu Kwong Pang, Tai Man Yue

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Optical waveguide cross-sectional shapes that deviate from rectangles or squares may cause significant loss of signal. In this study, a photolithography approach was adopted to fabricate waveguides on printed circuit boards, using photo-imageable polysiloxane as a waveguide material. The effects of I-line ultraviolet (UV) lamp exposure, 355-nm Nd:YAG laser direct imaging, and 248-nm excimer laser direct imaging on the cross-sectional shape of waveguides were investigated. For I-line UV lamp exposure, increasing the exposure time could cause changes in the tilt angle of the waveguides from negative (inverted trapezoid) to positive (trapezoid). To obtain rectangular waveguides, the optimum I-line UV lamp exposure time was found to be around 150 s. From the results for 355-nm Nd:YAG laser direct imaging, the width and tilt angle of the waveguides varied with the energy density of the laser beam irradiating the core materials, being controlled by the repetition rate and focus. Lowering the laser energy density could produce waveguides with small widths and tilt angles. Excimer laser direct imaging at 248 nm was found to be unsuitable for waveguide patterning since the core materials could not be cured at this wavelength.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3494-3501
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2013


  • cross-sectional shape
  • Optical printed circuit boards
  • optical waveguides
  • photolithography
  • polysiloxane

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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