Influence of metabolic syndrome and lifestyle factors on thyroid nodules in Chinese adult men: a cross-sectional study

Ziyu Wan, Ying Li, Xiaoqian Dong, Yue Kang, Juan Luo, Jiangang Wang, Pingting Yang, Yaqin Wang, Yinglong Duan (Corresponding Author), Jianfei Xie (Corresponding Author), Andy S.K. Cheng

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: Given the high prevalence of thyroid nodules and the potential for malignancy, it is imperative to understand the various factors that contribute to their development. This study aimed to explore the relationship between metabolic syndrome, lifestyle, and thyroid nodules in adult men in southern China. Methods: This study enrolled a total of 183,990 subjects at a medical examination center in a general hospital in southern China between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2020. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was utilized to evaluate the relationship between metabolic syndrome, lifestyle factors, and thyroid nodules. Furthermore, structural equation modeling elucidated the intricate relationships among these variables. Results: The prevalence of thyroid nodules among Chinese adult males was 14.9%. Several factors were identified as risk factors for thyroid nodules, including advanced age, irregular meal time, smoking or quitting smoking, quitting drinking, heavy manual labor, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and centripetal obesity, and those belonging to ethnic minorities and drinking alcohol were found to be protective factors against thyroid nodules. Structural equation modeling highlighted metabolic syndrome's mediating role amidst lifestyle influences on thyroid nodules. Conclusion: The prevalence of thyroid nodules in Chinese adult males is relatively moderate to low. The factors identified in this study can help clinicians identify high-risk patients and develop targeted screening strategies for the timely detection of thyroid nodules. However, further mechanistic research and longitudinal studies are necessary to explore the underlying causes and establish causal relationships.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere230168
JournalEuropean Thyroid Journal
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 3 Nov 2023


  • adult men
  • lifestyle
  • metabolic syndrome
  • thyroid nodule

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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