Influence of malalignment on socket reaction moments during gait in amputees with transtibial prostheses

David A. Boone, Toshiki Kobayashi, Teri G. Chou, Adam K. Arabian, Kim L. Coleman, Michael S. Orendurff, Ming Zhang

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

52 Citations (Scopus)


Alignment - the process and measured orientation of the prosthetic socket relative to the foot - is important for proper function of a transtibial prosthesis. Prosthetic alignment is performed by prosthetists using visual gait observation and amputees' feedback. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of transtibial prosthesis malalignment on the moments measured at the base of the socket: the socket reaction moments. Eleven subjects with transtibial amputation were recruited from the community. An instrumented prosthesis alignment component was used to measure socket reaction moments during ambulation under 17 alignment conditions, including nominally aligned using conventional clinical methods, and angle perturbations of 3° and 6° (flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction) and translation perturbations of 5. mm and 10. mm (anterior, posterior, lateral, and medial) referenced from the nominal alignment. Coronal alignment perturbations caused systematic changes in the coronal socket reaction moments. All angle and translation perturbations revealed statistically significant differences on coronal socket reaction moments compared to the nominal alignment at 30% and 75% of stance phase (. P<. 0.05). The effect of sagittal alignment perturbations on sagittal socket reaction moments was not as responsive as that of the coronal perturbations. The sagittal angle and translation perturbations of the socket led to statistically significant changes in minimum moment, maximum moment, and moments at 45% of stance phase in the sagittal plane. Therefore, malalignment affected the socket reaction moments in amputees with transtibial prostheses.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)620-626
Number of pages7
JournalGait and Posture
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2013


  • Alignment
  • Ankle
  • Diabetes
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Prosthesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Rehabilitation


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