Influence of in-tunnel environment to in-bus air quality and thermal condition in Hong Kong

Kwok Wai Mui, K. W. Shek

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


In this study, the potential exposure of bus commuters to significant air parameters (CO2, CO and RSP) and thermal environment (air temperature and relative humidity) when buses traveled through tunnels in Hong Kong was investigated. It was found that air-conditioned buses provided a better commuting environment than non-air-conditioned buses. The blate increasing trend was found on air-conditioned buses as the in-bus air parameters concentration levels rose slowly throughout the traveling process. In contrast, the in-bus environment varied rapidly on non-air-conditioned buses as it depended on the out-bus environment. The measured in-bus CO concentration was 2.9 ppm on air-conditioned buses, while it was 4.6 ppm (even reaching the highest level at 12.0 ppm) on non-air-conditioned buses. Considering the in-bus thermal environment, air-conditioned buses provided thermally comfortable cabins (about 24°C and 59% of relative humidity). However, on non-air-conditioned buses, the thermal environment varied with the out-bus environment. The mean in-bus air temperature was about 34°C and 66% of relative humidity, and the in-bus air temperature varied between 29 and 38°C. Also, the lower-deck to upper-deck air parameters concentration ratios indicated that the vertical dispersion of air pollutants in tunnels influenced non-air-conditioned buses as higher air parameters concentration levels were obtained on the lower-deck cabins.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)163-174
Number of pages12
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Issue number1-3
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jul 2005


  • In-bus air quality
  • In-bus thermal condition
  • In-tunnel environment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Environmental Science(all)


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