Influence of Family Factors on Substance Use in Early Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study in Hong Kong

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15 Citations (Scopus)


The present study examined the concurrent and longitudinal influences of paternal and maternal factors on the levels of and changes in substance use among early adolescents. Based on three waves of data collected from 2,669 junior high school Chinese students in Hong Kong, we found that fathers’ and mothers’ behavioral control and the quality of parent–adolescent relationship were negative predictors of the initial levels of substance use. Higher levels of maternal behavioral control and quality of mother–adolescent relationship predicted a slower rate of increase in adolescent substance use. Parental psychological control was not a significant predictor of the growth rate of adolescent substance use. While fathers’ behavioral control and mother–adolescent relationship were stable concurrent predictors, the mother–adolescent relationship was a robust longitudinal predictor of adolescent substance use. The findings underline the critical roles of parents in influencing adolescent substance use.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)66-76
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Psychoactive Drugs
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2020


  • Chinese students
  • junior high school
  • parenting
  • parent–child relational quality
  • substance use

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Psychology(all)


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