Infigratinib is a reversible inhibitor and mechanism-based inactivator of cytochrome P450 3A4S

Lloyd Wei Tat Tang, Jian Wei Teng, Ravi Kumar Verma, Siew Kwan Koh, Lei Zhou, Mei Lin Go, Hao Fan, Eric Chun Yong Chan

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Infigratinib (INF) is a promising selective inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor receptors 1-3 that has recently been accorded both orphan drug designation and priority review status by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of advanced cholangiocarcinoma. Its propensity to undergo bioactivation to electrophilic species was recently expounded upon. However, other than causing aberrant idiosyncratic toxicities, these reactive intermediates may elicit mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P450 enzymes. In this study, we investigated the interactions between INF and the most abundant hepatic CYP3A. Our findings revealed that, apart from being a potent noncompetitive reversible inhibitor of CYP3A4, INF inactivated CYP3A4 in a time-, concentration- and NADPH-dependent manner with inactivator concentration at halfmaximum inactivation rate constant, maximum inactivation rate constant, and partition ratio of 4.17 μM, 0.068 minute-1, and 41, respectively, when rivaroxaban was employed as the probe substrate. Coincubation with testosterone (alternative CYP3A substrate) or ketoconazole (direct CYP3A inhibitor) attenuated the rate of inactivation, whereas the inclusion of glutathione and catalase did not confer such protection. The lack of enzyme activity recovery after dialysis for 4 hours and oxidation with potassium ferricyanide, coupled with the absence of the characteristic Soret peak signature collectively substantiated that inactivation of CYP3A4 by INF was not mediated by the formation of quasi-irreversible metabolite- intermediate complexes but rather through irreversible covalent adduction to the prosthetic heme and/or apoprotein. Finally, glutathione trapping and high-resolution mass spectrometry experimental results unraveled two plausible bioactivation mechanisms of INF arising from the generation of a p-benzoquinonediimine and epoxide reactive intermediate. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The potential of INF to cause MBI of CYP3A4 was unknown. This study reports the reversible noncompetitive inhibition and irreversible covalent MBI of CYP3A4 by INF and proposes two potential bioactivation pathways implicating p-benzoquinonediimine and epoxide reactive intermediates, following which a unique covalent docking methodology was harnessed to elucidate the structural and molecular determinants underscoring its inactivation. Findings from this study lay the groundwork for future investigation of clinically relevant drug-drug interactions between INF and concomitant substrates of CYP3A4.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)856-868
Number of pages13
JournalDrug Metabolism and Disposition
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2021
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science


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