Infants with complex congenital heart diseases show poor short-term memory in the mobile paradigm at 3 months of age

Chao-Ying Chen, Tondi Harrison, Jill Heathcock

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this study was to examine learning, short-term memory and general development including cognitive, motor, and language domains in infants with Complex Congenital Heart Defects (CCDH). Ten infants with CCHD (4 males, 6 females) and 14 infants with typical development (TD) were examined at 3 months of age. The mobile paradigm, where an infant's leg is tethered to an overhead mobile, was used to evaluate learning and short-term memory. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development 3rd edition (Bayley-III) was used to evaluate general development in cognitive, motor, and language domains. Infants with CCHD and infants with TD both showed learning with significant increase in kicking rate (. p<. 0.001) across periods of the mobile paradigm, but only infants with TD demonstrated short-term memory (. p=. 0.017) in the mobile paradigm. There were no differences on cognitive, motor, and language development between infants with CCHD and infants with TD on the Bayley-III. Early assessment is necessary to guide targeted treatment in infants with CCHD. One-time assessment may fail to detect potential cognitive impairments during early infancy in infants with CCHD. Supportive intervention programs for infants with CCHD that focuses on enhancing short-term memory are recommended.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12-19
Number of pages8
JournalInfant Behavior and Development
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Complex congenital heart defects
  • Development
  • Learning
  • Motor
  • Short-term memory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


Dive into the research topics of 'Infants with complex congenital heart diseases show poor short-term memory in the mobile paradigm at 3 months of age'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this