In-place hot-mix asphalt density estimation using ground-penetrating radar

I. L. Al-Qadi, Zhen Leng, S. Lahouar, J. Baek

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

65 Citations (Scopus)


This research proposes the innovative use of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) for effectively, continuously, and rapidly estimating in-place hotmix asphalt (HMA) density. On the basis of electromagnetic mixing theories, three candidate models were developed to determine HMA's dielectric constant, considering dielectric and volumetric properties of its three major components of HMA: air, binder, and aggregate. Laboratory tests were conducted on midsize HMA slabs (60 cm × 60 cm × 7.5 cm) to evaluate the models. After evaluating and comparing the three models, it was determined that the prediction model based on the Rayleigh mixing theory was the most accurate. The selected model was calibrated with a field core and then validated using field GPR measurements of a composite pavement with an HMA surface. The selected model provided accurate HMA density within a reasonable range.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)19-27
Number of pages9
JournalTransportation Research Record
Issue number2152
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2010
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering

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