Improved rate capability of carbon coated Li3.9Sn0.1Ti5O12porous electrodes for Li-ion batteries

Biao Zhang, Zhen Dong Huang, Sei Woon Oh, Jang Kyo Kim

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

89 Citations (Scopus)


A new sol-gel process is developed to modify the Li4Ti5O12anode material for improved rate capability. The new process brings about the following effects, namely (i) doping of Sn2+to form Li3.9Sn0.1Ti5O12, (ii) carbon coating and (iii) creation of a porous structure. The doping of Sn2+results in the lattice distortion without changing the phase composition. A thin layer of amorphous carbon is coated on the doped particles that contain numerous nanopores. The rate capability of the anode material made from the modified powder is significantly improved when discharged at high current rates due to the reduced charge transfer resistance.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10692-10697
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 15 Dec 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Anode
  • Doping
  • Li-ion batteries
  • Lithium titanate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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