Cable-driven segmented manipulators (CDSMs) featured by superior dexterity, light and slender body are excellent candidates for operations in confined environments. However, the stiffness and load capacity of such manipulators have been a challenge due to their structural elasticity. In this paper, we propose an improved mechanism design based on the preliminary work to enhance the linkage accuracy and arm continuity without sacrificing the dexterity, high stiffness and load capacity of CDSM. The manipulator is composed of 4 improved hybrid active-passive linkage segments. Its short and long linkage cables with pretension mechanism are designed to keep equal angles of adjacent joints. An improved separable small driving control box is also designed with both quick release and load mechanism and stroke amplification mechanism. Then the size of control box can still remain small, even the number of segments and the joint limit angles increase. Considering the improved in-segment linkage characteristic, traditional kinematic equations and Jacobian matrix are greatly simplified with Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) method. Further trajectory tracking planning based on the simplified kinematics solved the Cartesian space planning for task design. Finally, a prototype system is developed to perform the linkage accuracy and comprehensive obstacle avoidance experiments. Experimental results show that the developed hybrid active and passive CDSM has relatively high accuracy and super dexterity.