Improved design of extended end-plate connection allowing for prying effects

Rui Bai, Siu Lai Chan, Ji Ping Hao

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


Abstract Connections are vital in affecting the safety of steel structures and connection failure is one of the main causes of structural collapse. Bolt connections are a dominant means of connecting structural members. In the design of bolt connections in steel structures, the effects of prying action on the connected parts and bolts should be considered because use of thick base plates to avoid its consideration results in lack of connection ductility which is undesirable. Although equations are available for prying action in Chinese, AISC and HK manuals or codes, they suffer some deficiencies. To develop a better design method for extended end-plate bolt connection, design formulae in several codes are discussed and compared in this paper. The paper further proposes revision for the current formulae in codes and suggests design formulae for bending moment in bolts and in end-plate. The equations are validated with rigorous finite element results, which show that the proposed method has a satisfactory accuracy for calculation of prying force and bending moment. Further, the suggested equations have the advantages over current methods in the provision of a systematic design for end-plate connection. More importantly, the derived formulae also lay a foundation for the further study of moment-rotation relationship in end-plate connections used in direct or advanced analysis of steel frames.
Original languageEnglish
Article number4233
Pages (from-to)13-27
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Constructional Steel Research
Publication statusPublished - 14 Jun 2015


  • Bolt bending moment
  • Design method
  • End-plate connection
  • Prying force
  • T-shaped joint

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys


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