Implicit Theories of Negotiation: Developing a Measure of Agreement Fluidity

Raymond A. Friedman, Robin L. Pinkley, William P. Bottom, Wu Liu, Michele Gelfand

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Negotiation scholars generally model agreement as the terminal “endpoint” of the process. From this perspective, parties instantaneously realize their outcomes when agreement is reached. Although this conception may also reflect the understanding of some negotiators (those with what we call a “fixed agreement” mindset), we argue that others actually envision agreement as one step in an ongoing process (what we call a “fluid agreement” mindset). To spur research on this topic, we report initial progress on development of a new measure of agreement fluidity. Basic psychometric properties for this measure were established using six correlational samples that demonstrate aspects of both discriminant and convergent validity. Fixed agreement mindset appears to predict important behaviors during and after the negotiation process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)127-150
Number of pages24
JournalNegotiation and Conflict Management Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2020


  • agreements
  • contract
  • entity theory
  • mindset
  • negotiation
  • personality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Communication
  • Strategy and Management


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