Cigarette smoke (CS) is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and can induce systemic manifestations, such as skeletal muscle derangement. However, inconsistent findings of muscle derangement were reported in previous studies. The aim of the present study was to consolidate the available evidence and assess the impact of CS on muscle derangement in rodents. A comprehensive literature search of five electronic databases identified ten articles for final analysis. Results showed that the diaphragm, rectus femoris, soleus, and gastrocnemius exhibited significant oxidative to glycolytic fiber conversions upon CS exposure. In contrast, the extensor digitorum longus (EDL), plantaris, and tibialis did not exhibit a similar fiber-type conversion after CS exposure. Hindlimb muscles, including the quadriceps, soleus, gastrocnemius, and EDL, showed significant reductions in the CSA of the muscle fibers in the CS group when compared to the control group. Changes in inflammatory cytokines, exercise capacity, and functional outcomes induced by CS have also been evaluated. CS could induce a shift from oxidative fibers to glycolytic fibers in high-oxidative muscles such as the diaphragm, rectus femoris, and soleus, and cause muscle atrophy, as reflected by a reduction in the CSA of hindlimb muscles such as the quadriceps, soleus, gastrocnemius, and EDL.
- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
- cigarette smoke (CS)
- cross-sectional area
- fiber type composition
- muscle derangement