Impact of electrical heating on effective thermal insulation of a multi-layered winter clothing system for optimal heating efficiency

H. Park, S.-K. Hwang, J.-Y. Lee, Jintu Fan, Y. Jeong

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

© 2016, © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of the distance of the heating unit from the body in a multi-layered winter clothing system on effective thermal insulation and heating efficiency. Design/methodology/approach - To identify changes in the thermal insulation and heating efficiency of electrical heating in different layers inside a winter clothing ensemble, a series of thermal manikin tests was conducted. A multi-layered winter ensemble with and without activation of a heating unit was tested on the thermal manikin under two different ambient temperature conditions (10°C and ?5°C). Findings - Results show that the effective thermal insulation of test ensembles increased by 5-7 percent with the activation of the heating unit compared to that without the activation. The closer the heating unit to the body, the higher the effective thermal insulation was in both ambient temperature conditions. This trend was more significant at lower ambient temperature. Research limitations/implications - The results of this study indicate that providing electric heating next to the skin is the most effective in increasing effective thermal insulation and decreasing body heat loss in both ambient temperature (?5°C and 10°C). This trend was more remarkable in colder environment at ?5°C of ambient temperature as evidenced by sharp decrease in heating efficiency and effective thermal insulation with an increase in distance between the manikin skin and heating unit at ?5°C of ambient temperature compared to at 10°C of ambient temperature. Practical implications - Based on the results, it is expected that proximity heating next to the skin, in cold environment, may reduce the weight and size of the battery for the heating unit because of the higher efficiency of electric heating and the potentially immediate perception of warmth supported by the greatest increase in effective thermal insulation, as well as the lowest heat loss that comes with activation of heating on the first layer in cold environment. Originality/value - The finding of this study provides guidelines to sportswear designers, textile scientists, sports enthusiasts, and civilians who consider electric heating benefits for improved thermal comfort and safety in cold environments, especially in the areas of outdoor and winter sports and in military service. The results of this study indicate that providing electric heating next to the skin is the most effective in increasing effective thermal insulation and decreasing body heat loss in both ambient temperature (?5°C and 10°C).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)254-264
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
Volume28
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 18 Apr 2016
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Clothing
  • Electric heating
  • Thermal comfort
  • Thermal manikin
  • Winter

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business, Management and Accounting (miscellaneous)
  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)
  • Business, Management and Accounting(all)
  • Polymers and Plastics

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