Identification of Key Beliefs Explaining Male Circumcision Motivation Among Adolescent Boys in Zimbabwe: Targets for Behavior Change Communication

Danuta Kasprzyk, Mufuta Tshimanga, Deven T. Hamilton, Gerald Gorn, Daniel E. Montaño

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Male circumcision (MC) significantly reduces HIV acquisition among men, leading WHO/UNAIDS to recommend high HIV and low MC prevalence countries circumcise 80% of adolescents and men age 15–49. Despite significant investment to increase MC capacity only 27% of the goal has been achieved in Zimbabwe. To increase adoption, research to create evidence-based messages is greatly needed. The Integrated Behavioral Model (IBM) was used to investigate factors affecting MC motivation among adolescents. Based on qualitative elicitation study results a survey was designed and administered to a representative sample of 802 adolescent boys aged 13–17 in two urban and two rural areas in Zimbabwe. Multiple regression analysis found all six IBM constructs (2 attitude, 2 social influence, 2 personal agency) significantly explained MC intention (R2 = 0.55). Stepwise regression analysis of beliefs underlying each IBM belief-based construct found 9 behavioral, 6 injunctive norm, 2 descriptive norm, 5 efficacy, and 8 control beliefs significantly explained MC intention. A final stepwise regression of all the significant IBM construct beliefs identified 12 key beliefs best explaining intention. Similar analyses were carried out with subgroups of adolescents by urban–rural and age. Different sets of behavioral, normative, efficacy, and control beliefs were significant for each sub-group. This study demonstrates the application of theory-driven research to identify evidence-based targets for the design of effective MC messages for interventions to increase adolescents’ motivation. Incorporating these findings into communication campaigns is likely to improve demand for MC.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)454-470
Number of pages17
JournalAIDS and Behavior
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2018


  • Adolescent boys
  • Behavior change communication
  • Behavioral theory
  • Evidence based demand creation
  • Integrated Behavioral Model
  • Issues to focus communication campaigns
  • Voluntary medical male circumcision

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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