Hydrogenated TiO2nanotube arrays as high-rate anodes for lithium-ion microbatteries

Zhouguang Lu, Cho Tong Yip, Liping Wang, Haitao Huang, Li Min Zhou

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

164 Citations (Scopus)


A simple method has been developed to substantially improve the high-rate capability of electrochemically anodized TiO2nanotube arrays targeted for use as anode material in lithiumion microbatteries by annealing in a reducing atmosphere (5% H2and 95% Ar). A series of complementary techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD) with Rietveld refining, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectrometry (Raman), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), galvanostatic measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) have been employed to investigate the structural and morphological changes as well as the electrochemical performance enhancement resulting from hydrogenation treatment of the TiO2nanotube arrays. The results reveal that improvement of the rate capability is mainly attributed to the electronic conductivity increase of the bulk TiO2nanotubes rather than conductive characteristics of the surface coating because hydrogenation treatment produces a high number of oxygen vacancies inside the crystal lattices that makes the TiO2nanotube arrays favor a bulk n-type conductor. Furthermore, the high-rate capability of other kinds of TiO2nanomaterials, including rutile TiO2nanowire arrays and anatase TiO2nanoparticles, can also be considerably improved by similar H2treatment. Therefore, the current H2treatment method is proved to be a general and facile technique to improve the power density of TiO2anode materials for next-generation, high-power lithium-ion batteries. KGaA, Weinheim.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)991-1000
Number of pages10
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2012


  • Anode materials
  • Lithium ions
  • Microbatteries
  • Nanotube arrays
  • Titanium dioxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry


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