Hybrid renewable energy applications in zero-energy buildings and communities integrating battery and hydrogen vehicle storage

Jia Liu, Xi Chen, Hongxing Yang, Kui Shan

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


This study presents hybrid renewable energy systems integrated with stationary battery and mobile hydrogen vehicle storage for a zero-energy community consisting of campus, office and residential buildings based on practical energy use data and simulations. A time-of-use grid penalty cost model evaluating grid import and export during on-peak and off-peak periods is proposed to achieve the power grid flexibility and economy. Multi-objective optimizations are conducted to size zero-energy buildings and the community considering the renewable energy self-consumption, on-site load coverage and grid penalty cost in the coupled platform of TRNSYS and jEplus+EA. The study results indicate that battery storage improves the renewable energy self-consumption, load coverage, hydrogen system efficiency and grid integration of the zero-energy community. Grid penalty cost reductions of 145.36% − 158.92% and 135.05% − 164.41% are achieved in zero-energy scenarios with and without battery storage compared with baseline scenarios without renewable energy. The lifetime net present value of four zero-energy scenarios with battery storage is increased by 22.39% − 96.17% compared with baseline scenarios, while it is reduced by 6.45% of US$ 7.62M and 1.90% of US$ 2.16M in zero-energy campus and residential buildings without battery storage. Substantial environmental benefits are also achieved in zero-energy scenarios with and without battery storage for reducing carbon emissions by 71.23% − 90.93% and 67.57% − 91.36%, respectively. Such a comprehensive techno-economic-environmental feasibility study can offer significant guidance for relative stakeholders to develop renewable energy applications for zero-energy buildings and communities in urban areas.

Original languageEnglish
Article number116733
JournalApplied Energy
Publication statusPublished - 15 May 2021


  • Battery storage
  • Hydrogen vehicle
  • Solar photovoltaic
  • Wind turbine
  • Zero-energy community

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Building and Construction
  • Energy(all)
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

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