Hybrid Electric Springs for Grid-Tied Power Control and Storage Reduction in AC Microgrids

Ming Hao Wang, Tian Bo Yang, Siew Chong Tan, S. Y. Hui

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


The renewable generations (RGs) are conventionally interfaced with the utility grid through battery energy storage systems (BESS). In this cascaded configuration of the grid-connected inverter, battery, and RG, the power of the battery is passively governed by the power difference between the RG and the grid. This compromises the state-of-charge (SoC) control of the battery and increases the storage capacity. To address this issue, a hybrid electric spring (HES), which is integrated with the RG and noncritical load (NCL), is proposed in this paper for the grid-tied power control and reduction of battery storage capacity in ac microgrids. Such an integrated configuration enables a flexible control of the power flow among battery, NCL, and grid. On top of that, the proposed HES can achieve an extended operating region of grid-tied power control compared with the conventional BESS and the existing electric springs. The operating principle, steady-state analysis, and control design of the HES are discussed. The functions of the grid-tied power control and battery SoC control are verified experimentally and through simulations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8408764
Pages (from-to)3214-3225
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2019


  • Electric spring (ES)
  • energy storage reduction
  • power control
  • renewable energy
  • smart grid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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