Human Factors Evaluation of ATC Operational Procedures in Relation to Use of 3D Display

Yisi Liu, Fitri Trapsilawati, Zirui Lan, Olga Sourina, Henry Johan, Fan Li, Chun Hsien Chen, Wolfgang Mueller-Wittig

Research output: Chapter in book / Conference proceedingConference article published in proceeding or bookAcademic researchpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, Holding Stack Management (HSM), Continuous Climb Operations (CCO), Continuous Descent Operations (CDO), and Trajectory Based Operations (TBO) procedures are assessed in relation to the use of an additional 3D display. Two display seetings are compared, namely 2D+3D and 2D only. Twelve Air Traffic Control Officers (ATCOs) took part in the experiment. Traditional questionnaires such as NASA TLX, TRUST, etc. were given at the end of each 30-minute trial for each display setting. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded during the experiments to continuously monitor the changes of the brain states of the ATCOs. The results of the data analyses show that by using 2D+3D display setting, more positive emotions, but higher stress and workload levels were experienced by ATCOs in TBO, CCO and CDO procedures than in 2D setting. In HSM, reduced stress and significantly lower cognitive workload were experienced by ATCOs when they were using 2D+3D setting.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Human Factors of Transportation - Proceedings of the AHFE 2019 International Conference on Human Factors in Transportation
EditorsNeville Stanton
Number of pages12
ISBN (Print)9783030205027
Publication statusPublished - 6 Jun 2019
Externally publishedYes
EventAHFE International Conference on Human Factors in Transportation, 2019 - Washington D.C., United States
Duration: 24 Jul 201928 Jul 2019

Publication series

NameAdvances in Intelligent Systems and Computing
ISSN (Print)2194-5357
ISSN (Electronic)2194-5365


ConferenceAHFE International Conference on Human Factors in Transportation, 2019
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityWashington D.C.


  • 3D visualization
  • Air Traffic Control
  • Brain states monitoring
  • EEG
  • Human factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • General Computer Science


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