How Does Lower Limb Respond to Unexpected Balance Perturbations? New Insights from Synchronized Human Kinetics, Kinematics, Muscle Electromyography (EMG) and Mechanomyography (MMG) Data

Tanglong Zhu, Peizhao Lyu, Shuai Li, Cheuk Ying Tong, Yan To Ling, Zonghao Ma (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

Abstract

Making rapid and proper compensatory postural adjustments is vital to prevent falls and fall-related injuries. This study aimed to investigate how, especially how rapidly, the multiple lower-limb muscles and joints would respond to the unexpected standing balance perturbations. Unexpected waist-pull perturbations with small, medium and large magnitudes were delivered to twelve healthy young adults from the anterior, posterior, medial and lateral directions. Electromy-ographical (EMG) and mechanomyographical (MMG) responses of eight dominant-leg muscles (i.e., hip abductor/adductors, hip flexor/extensor, knee flexor/extensor, and ankle dorsi-flexor/plantarflexors) together with the lower-limb joint angle, moment, and power data were rec-orded. The onset latencies, time to peak, peak values, and/or rate of change of these signals were analyzed. Statistical analysis revealed that: (1) agonist muscles resisting the delivered perturbation had faster activation than the antagonist muscles; (2) ankle muscles showed the largest rate of activation among eight muscles following both anteroposterior and mediolateral perturbations; (3) lower-limb joint moments that complied with the perturbation had faster increase; and (4) larger perturbation magnitude tended to evoke a faster response in muscle activities, but not necessarily in joint kinetics/kinematics. These findings provided insights regarding the underlying mechanism and lower-limb muscle activities to maintain reactive standing balance in healthy young adults.

Original languageEnglish
Article number430
JournalBiosensors
Volume12
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 18 Jun 2022

Keywords

  • balance control
  • balance perturbation
  • compensatory postural adjustment (CPA)
  • electromyography (EMG)
  • mechanomyography (MMG)
  • onset latency
  • reactive balance response
  • skeletal muscle
  • time to peak
  • waist-pulling perturbation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biotechnology
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Instrumentation
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Biochemistry

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