High formability Mg-Zn-Gd wire facilitates ACL reconstruction via its swift degradation to accelerate intra-tunnel endochondral ossification

Xuan He, Ye Li, Hongwei Miao, Jiankun Xu, Michael Tim yun Ong, Chenmin Wang, Lizhen Zheng, Jiali Wang, Le Huang, Haiyue Zu, Zhi Yao, Jie Mi, Bingyang Dai, Xu Li, Patrick Shu hang Yung (Corresponding Author), Guangyin Yuan (Corresponding Author), Ling Qin (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


After reconstructing the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), unsatisfactory bone tendon interface healing may often induce tunnel enlargement at the early healing stage. With good biological features and high formability, Magnesium-Zinc-Gadolinium (ZG21) wires are developed to bunch the tendon graft for matching the bone tunnel during transplantation. Microstructure, tensile strength, degradation, and cytotoxicity of ZG21 wire are evaluated. The rabbit model is used for assessing the biological effects of ZG21 wire by Micro-CT, histology, and mechanical test. The SEM/EDS, immunochemistry, and in vitro assessments are performed to investigate the underlying mechanism. Material tests demonstrate the high formability of ZG21 wire as surgical suture. Micro-CT shows ZG21 wire degradation accelerates tunnel bone formation, and histologically with earlier and more fibrocartilage regeneration at the healing interface. The mechanical test shows higher ultimate load in the ZG21 group. The SEM/EDS presents ZG21 wire degradation triggered calcium phosphate (Ca-P) deposition. IHC results demonstrate upregulation of Wnt3a, BMP2, and VEGF at the early phase and TGFβ3 and Type II collagen at the late phase of healing. In vitro tests also confirmed the Ca-P in the metal extract could elevate the expression of Wnt3a, β catenin, ocn and opn to stimulate osteogenesis. Ex vivo tests of clinical samples indicated suturing with ZG21 wire did not weaken the ultimate loading of human tendon tissue. In conclusion, the ZG21 wire is feasible for tendon graft bunching. Its degradation products accelerated intra-tunnel endochondral ossification at the early healing stage and therefore enhanced bone-tendon interface healing in ACL reconstruction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)295-315
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Magnesium and Alloys
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024


  • ACL reconstruction
  • Biomaterials
  • Endochondral ossification
  • Magnesium alloy
  • Magnesium wire

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys


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