High-capacity and robust watermarking scheme for small-scale vector data

Deyu Tong, Changqing Zhu, Na Ren, Wenzhong Shi

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


For small-scale vector data, restrictions on watermark scheme capacity and robustness limit the use of copyright protection. A watermarking scheme based on robust geometric features and capacity maximization strategy that simultaneously improves capacity and robustness is presented in this paper. The distance ratio and angle of adjacent vertices are chosen as the watermark domain due to their resistance to vertex and geometric attacks. Regarding watermark embedding and extraction, a capacity-improved strategy based on quantization index modulation, which divides more intervals to carry sufficient watermark bits, is proposed. By considering the error tolerance of the vector map and the numerical accuracy, the optimization of the capacity-improved strategy is studied to maximize the embedded watermark bits for each vertex. The experimental results demonstrated that the map distortion caused by watermarks is small and much lower than the map tolerance. Additionally, the proposed scheme can embed a copyright image of 1024 bits into vector data of 150 vertices, which reaches capacity at approximately 14 bits/vertex, and shows prominent robustness against vertex and geometric attacks for small-scale vector data.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6190-6213
Number of pages24
JournalKSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 31 Dec 2019


  • Capacity
  • Digital watermarking
  • Robustness
  • Small-scale data
  • Vector data

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Information Systems
  • Computer Networks and Communications


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