Due to excessive elongation of the eyeball, myopia-related vascular abnormalities are frequently observed in the central retinal artery (CRA) and its intraretinal branches. In addition to inconsistency in previously reported findings, hemodynamic (reduced flow velocity, increased vascular resistance) and morphological changes (narrower vessel diameter) were usually studied separately. This cross-sectional study evaluated the hemodynamic and morphological characteristics concurrently in a large sample of healthy myopes, by using the color Doppler ultrasound and adaptive optics retinal camera. Results showed that the retrobulbar segment of CRA had a tendency of slightly reduced flow velocity in eyeballs with longer axial length, but the correlation was not significant after adjusting for the multiple correlations. Vascular resistance was not affected by the axial elongation. With respect to the intraretinal branches, no significant changes in longer eyes of total diameter or lumen diameter were observed, while both the wall thickness and the wall cross-sectional area were significantly increased, but only a marginally increase in the wall to lumen ratio was found with increasing axial length. This implies some potential small artery remodeling in the intraretinal CRA branches. Overall, blood supply of the inner retina in healthy young myopes is likely to be maintained. Additionally, morphological parameters of vascular microstructure could be potential biomarkers to monitor myopia progression and understand myopia-related vascular abnormalities in future studies.